Cyclic and Load-to-Failure Properties of All-Suture Anchors in Human Cadaveric Shoulder Glenoid Bone (Abstract)
Authors: Ruder JA, Dickinson EY, Peindl RD, Habet NA, Fleischli JE
To evaluate the cyclic displacement and ultimate load to failure of 4 all-suture anchors in human cadaveric shoulder glenoid bone.
Four all-suture anchors indicated for glenoid labral repair were tested in 14 matched pairs of human cadaveric fresh-frozen glenoids. Anchors were inserted at 4 different locations for a total of 112 tests (12-, 3-, 6-, and 9-o’clock positions for right glenoids). Cyclicloading (10 to 60 N at 1 Hz for 200 cycles) and single pull-to-failure testing (33 mm/s) were performed. A Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance with the Dunn multiple-comparison post hoc test was used for statistical analysis.
One matched pair was excluded because of poor bone quality. Thus, 13 matched pairs were included in the study, and a total of 104 tests were performed. The Q-Fix anchors showed significantly less displacement after 100 cycles (mean ± standard deviation, 1.40 ± 0.97 mm; P < .001) and 200 cycles (1.53 ± 1.00 mm, P < .001) than all other anchors tested. The Q-Fix (191.3 ± 65.8 N), Suturefix (188.3 ± 61.4 N), and JuggerKnot (183.6 ± 63.5 N) anchors had significantly greater ultimate loads to failure than the Iconix anchors (143.5 ± 54.1 N) (P = .01, P = .012, and P = .021, respectively). Displacement greater than 5 mm occurred in 6 Iconix anchors (22.1%), 5 Suturefix anchors (19.2%), 4 JuggerKnot anchors (15.4%), and 0 Q-Fix anchors (0%).
The Q-Fix anchors showed less displacement with cyclic loading than the Iconix, JuggerKnot, and Suturefix anchors. The Iconix anchors had a lower ultimate load to failure than the Q-Fix, Suturefix, and JuggerKnot anchors. Only the Q-Fix group had no anchorsdisplace greater than 5 mm with cyclic loading.
All-suture anchors vary in their deployment mechanism, which may alter their strength and performance. Operators must be aware of these anchors‘ propensity to displace while deploying them.
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