Biomechanical comparison of hamstring tendon fixation devices for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: part 1. Five femoral devices
We conducted a study to biomechanically compare 5 femoral hamstring tendon fixation devices commonly used in anterior cruciate ligamentreconstruction. Quadrupled human semitendinosus-gracilis tendon grafts were fixed into porcine femurs using 5 separate fixation devices. For each device, 10 specimens were tested (1500-cycle loading test at 50-200 N). Specimens surviving the cyclic loading then underwent a single load-to-failure (LTF) test. Failure mode, stiffness, ultimate load, and rigidity were recorded. Two of 10 Delta screw (Arthrex), 10 of 10 Bio-TransFix (Arthrex), 10 of 10 Bone Mulch screw (Arthrotek), 10 of 10 EZLoc (Arthrotek), and 10 of 10 Zip Loop (Arthrotek) devices completed the 1500-cycle loading test. Residual displacement was lowest for Bio-TransFix (4.1 mm) followed by Bone Mulch (5.2 mm), EZLoc (6.4 mm), Zip Loop (6.8 mm), and Delta (8.2 mm). Mean stiffness was significantly (P < .001) higher for Bone Mulch (218 N/mm) than for Bio-TransFix (171 N/mm), EZLoc (122 N/mm), Zip Loop (105 N/mm), or Delta (84 N/mm). Mean LTF was significantly ( P < .001) higher for Bone Mulch (867 N) than for Zip Loop (615 N), Bio-TransFix (552 N), EZLoc (476 N), or Delta (410 N). The Bone Mulch screw demonstrated superior strength in the fixation of hamstring grafts in the femur. Bio-TransFix was close behind. The Delta screw demonstrated poor displacement, stiffness, and LTF. When used as the sole femoral fixation device, a device with low LTF, decreased stiffness, and high residual displacement should be used cautiously in patients undergoing aggressive rehabilitation.